The word cosmopolitanism is derived from “cosmos” (universe) and “polites” (citizen). The cosmopolitan is a citizen of the world (Eliopoulos, 2014). The Stoics elaborate on the theme, using the ideas of oikeiosis and sympathy as its basis, thus drawing from their physics. Particularly, Epictetus defends cosmopolitanism on the assumption that man is akin to God, whereas Marcus Aurelius highlights the common possession of mind (νοῦς) and that man is by nature able for communal life. For the Stoics man is a social being who can be perfected only within the society of other human beings. The brotherhood of men is grounded on the indubitable axiom that the human soul is the source of the unique good, which is virtue. The distinctive parameter for creating a community is virtue, which is an objective for everyone but also an inherent and ecumenical capacity.
Lifestyle is a way used by people, groups and nations and is formed in specific geographical, economic, political, cultural and religious texts (Farhud, 2015). Lifestyle refers to the characteristics of inhabitants of a region in a special time and place. It includes day to day behaviors and functions of individuals in job, activities, fun and diet. In recent decades, lifestyle as an important factor of health is more interesting to researchers. According to WHO, 60% of related factors to individual health and quality of life are correlated to lifestyle. Millions of people follow an unhealthy lifestyle. Hence, they encounter illness, disability and even death. Problems like metabolic diseases, joint and skeletal problems, cardio-vascular diseases, hypertension, overweight, violence and so on, can be caused by an unhealthy lifestyle. The relationship of lifestyle and health should be highly considered.
Today, wide changes have occurred in the lives of all people (Farhud, 2015). Malnutrition, unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug abuse, stress and so on, are the presentations of unhealthy lifestyles that are used as the dominant form of lifestyle. Besides, the lives of citizens face with new challenges. For instance, emerging new technologies within IT such as the internet and virtual communication networks, lead our world to a major challenge that threatens the physical and mental health of individuals. The challenge is the overuse and misuse of the technology.
For the past few years, the term ‘lifestyle migration’ has been used to refer to an increasing number of people who make the decision to migrate based on their belief that there is a more fulfilling way of life available to them elsewhere (Benson, 2009). Lifestyle migration is thus a growing, disparate phenomenon, with important but little understood implications for both societies and individuals. This blog outlines and explores in detail a series of mobilities that have in common relative affluence and this search for a better lifestyle. We attempt to define the limits of the term lifestyle migration, the characteristics of the lifestyle sought, and the place of this form of migration in the contemporary world. In this manner, we map the various migrations that can be considered under this broad rubric, recognizing the similarities and differences in their migration trajectories. Further to this, drawing on the sociological literature on lifestyle, we provide an initial theoretical conceptualization of this phenomenon, attempting to explain its recent escalation in various guises, and investigating the historical, sociological, and individualized conditions that inspire this migration.
Diet and Body Mass Index (BMI) (Farhud, 2015): Diet is the greatest factor in lifestyle and has a direct and positive relation with health. Poor diet and its consequences like obesity is the common healthy problem in urban societies. Unhealthy lifestyle can be measured by BMI. Urban lifestyle leads to the nutrition problems like using fast foods and poor foods, increasing problems like cardiovascular.
Exercise (Farhud, 2015): For treating general health problems, exercise is included in lifestyle. The continuous exercise along with a healthy diet increases the health. Some studies stress on the relation of active lifestyle with happiness.
Sleep (Farhud, 2015): One of the bases of healthy life is sleep. Sleep cannot be apart from life. Sleep disorders have several social, psychological, economical and healthy consequences. Lifestyle may affect sleep and sleep has a clear influence on mental and physical health.
Sexual behavior (Farhud, 2015): Normal sex relation is necessary in healthy life. Dysfunction of sex relation is the problem of most of societies and it has a significant effect on mental and physical health. It can be said that dysfunctional sex relation may result in various family problems or sex related illnesses like; AIDS.
Substance abuse (Farhud, 2015): Addiction is considered as an unhealthy lifestyle. Smoking and using other substances may result in various problems; cardiovascular disease, asthma, cancer, brain injury. According to the recent studies in Iran, 43% of females and 64% of males experience the use of hubble-bubble. A longitudinal study shows that 30% of people between 18–65 years old smoke cigarettes permanently.
Medication abuse (Farhud, 2015): It is a common form of using medication in Iran and it is considered as an unhealthy lifestyle. Unhealthy behaviors in using medication are as followed: self-treatment, sharing medication, using medications without prescription, prescribing too many drugs, prescribing the large number of each drug, unnecessary drugs, bad handwriting in prescription, disregard to the contradictory drugs, disregard to harmful effects of drugs, not explaining the effects of drugs.
Application of modern technologies (Farhud, 2015): Advanced technology facilitates the life of human beings. Misuse of technology may result in unpleasant consequences. For example, using computers and other devices up to midnight, may affect the pattern of sleep and it may disturb sleep. Addiction to using mobile phones is related to depression symptoms.
Recreation (Farhud, 2015): Leisure pass time is a sub factor of lifestyle. Neglecting leisure can bring negative consequences. With disorganized planning and unhealthy leisure, people endanger their health.
Study (Farhud, 2015): Study is the exercise of soul. Placing study as a factor in lifestyle may lead to more physical and mental health. For example, the prevalence of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease is lower educated people. Study could slow process of dementia.
Benson, Michaela, and Karen O'reilly. "Migration and the search for a better way of life: a critical exploration of lifestyle migration." The sociological review 57, no. 4 (2009): 608-625.
Eliopoulos, Panos. "The Stoic Cosmopolitanism as a way of life." Dialogue and Universalism 24, no. 3 (2014): 30-35.
Farhud, Dariush D. "Impact of lifestyle on health." Iranian journal of public health 44, no. 11 (2015): 1442.